Winter 2017 Vol. 85.1
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This close reading of Lorca’s Viaje a la luna is based on three overlapping approaches: the complete segmentation of the text and the identification of discrete sequences and interpolations within it; the recognition that the work’s cohesiveness, such as it is, depends much more on the symbolic rather than the narrative; and the use of imagery and themes found in Lorca’s drama El público to inform an analysis and interpretation of the film scenario. The psychic journey obliquely depicted in Viaje traces in nonlinear fashion the protagonist’s trajectory from birth to death, and is focused above all on issues of sexuality, ranging from attitudes to intercourse and procreation to vacillation between heterosexuality and homosexuality. He submits to the forces of social convention (the wearing of the Harlequin suit), but a return to “authenticity” (the anatomical dummy) inevitably brings about his demise, demonstrating the inextricably interwoven nature of eros and thanatos.
This article explores the role translation has played in the circulation and promotion of Basque writer Kirmen Uribe’s first novel Bilbao–New York–Bilbao (2008). By examining the response both in and outside of the Basque Country, the article shows how particular views of literature within the Basque Country have influenced the work’s reception. In particular, drawing from political theories on community formation, it highlights the way art and literature are represented in the novel as spaces in which Basque artist-citizens have the right to participate in the nonviolent creation of their collective reality and to exchange and inspire ideas on the global stage. The article argues that Uribe’s novel promotes a productive view of Basque identity as always in movement, and therefore it is not exclusively tied to previous generations and their more violent means of protecting Basque culture.
With Spain’s financial downturn beginning in 2007–2008, crime fiction authors have responded by focusing on how the crisis has affected certain marginalized groups. In “El enigma de su voz” and “Sin tratamiento de cortesía,” Isabel Franc reacts not only to the economic crisis in Spain, but also to a social crisis that could threaten the union of same-sex couples. This article studies how Emma García, now a private detective in Barcelona, must double as a bodyguard, a protector of the lesbian couples that are now her clients, to defend them against a return to invisibility. The lesbian utopia of the Lola Van Guardia trilogy and the later No me llames cariño is now in danger as lo masculino invades to disrupt the space for lesbian love and marriage in these two short stories.
In Cuentos de vacaciones (1905), the collection of short fictions by Spanish histologist and Nobel Prize winner Santiago Ramón y Cajal, scientific and aesthetic discourses merge to interrogate the increasing complexity of life under modernity. This article examines how science and technologies of representation and display (dissection, “the theater of proof,” microscopy) intersect with modern spaces of visuality (theaters, museums, laboratories) in order to construct an epistemology of the human body and its legibility at individual and collective levels of existence. In my reading of “El pesimista corregido,” I argue that the story can be interpreted as a pseudoscientific experiment taking the form of a mise en scène which, as it exposes the constructed nature of human physiology, also foregrounds the centrality of theater and illusion as mechanisms and channels for subjectivization as well as for the production of aesthetic, cultural, and political consensus.
Anxieties of Interiority and Dissection in Early Modern Spain by Enrique Fernández (review) by Víctor Sierra Matute
Autumn 2016 Vol. 84.4
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Este artículo parte de una revisión documental del proceso de Abdela Alicaxet, morisco valenciano condenado a la hoguera en 1576 con cargos de apóstata y pirata. Seguidamente se analiza cómo años más tarde Lope de Vega reconstruye este caso inquisitorial en Los cautivos de Argel (1599) con el fin de exponer un acervo de prejuicios, temores y ansiedades sobre la comunidad morisca, y se examinan las estrategias textuales con que la comedia desvincula de España a este colectivo para atribuirle una identidad extranjera. De este modo la obra reproduce el registro vulgar de la controversia de los años previos a la expulsión, pero a la vez interviene en ella autorizando un tipo de percepción homogénea y participando en la construcción de una conciencia colectiva de la minoría morisca como alteridad, como extranjería peligrosa y desechable.
Elizabeth Christine Russ
The Dominican literary journal Brigadas Dominicanas published ten issues between December 1961 and March 1963. Its director, the Dominican poet and intellectual, Aída Cartagena Portalatín, affirmed her journal as a space open to compatriots committed to artistic and political freedom following the May 1961 assassination of the dictator Rafael Trujillo. Although its pages serve as an important repository for testimonial literature about the Trujillato, it is more than a simple anthology. While historians maintain that literary discourse played a negligible role during the postdictatorship moment, Brigadas reveals an intense social and political engagement by artists and intellectuals in the political and social life of the nation. Thus, rather than a time bereft of literary activity, Brigadas shows 1961–1965 as a period during which Dominican artists and intellectuals began what would be a long and continuing struggle to define the role of art and literature in a free society.
This article explores the functions of apostrophe and other strategies of mediated reception in Juan Latino’s Austrias Carmen (1573), a two-book epic poem in Latin on the Battle of Lepanto. Latino’s epic repeatedly invites the narratee to fix his or her gaze on remarkable spectacles, creating a tension between narrative and discursive time. In the first part of the article, I examine how Latino uses apostrophes directed at his patron Pedro de Deza to establish a close link between the addressee of the epic—Deza—and the Habsburg dynasty, while at the same time encouraging Deza to visualize the scenes described. In the second part, I question the shift within the poem from apostrophes explicitly addressing Deza towards ones directed at an implicit narratee. Latino’s purpose, I argue, is therefore to put before the eyes of the narratee his marvelous artistic skills as a painter with words.
A principios del siglo XVI, Jorge de Bustamante adaptó al castellano las Metamorfosis de Ovidio, una traducción que se acabaría convirtiendo en la versión española más difundida de la obra y en una de las fuentes de Lope de Vega. Solo una de sus múltiples ediciones, la que se imprimió en Amberes en 1595, apareció con una serie de grabados del artista alemán Virgil Solis que representaban los principales episodios de los mitos ovidianos. Este artículo pretende demostrar la influencia de estas ilustraciones de Solis en la composición de las comedias mitológicas de Lope de Vega, para revelar así la amplia visión pictórica del dramaturgo y su capacidad para crear nuevos recursos escénicos a partir de elementos iconográficos.
Proust’s Latin Americans by Rubén Gallo (review) by Alejandro Herrero-Olaizola
Macho Ethics: Masculinity and Self-Representation in Latino-Caribbean Narrative by Jason Cortés (review) by Alexandra Gonzenbach Perkins
Summer 2016 Vol. 84.3
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En los sonetos “Al pincel” y “A la pintura”, recogidos en su poemario homónimo de 1945, Rafael Alberti parte de la idea barroca del arte pictórico expresada ejemplarmente en la silva “El pincel” de Francisco de Quevedo (c. 1625) y reelabora sobre sus conceptos centrales: por un lado, el carácter heroico de la pintura y, por otro, la idea de su ilimitada capacidad de representación. Alberti pone este material al servicio de su poética del arte pictórico, en la que las constantes del tiempo y de la muerte quedan fuera del texto. El resultado es una nueva poesía que identifica la pintura con creación que supera la mímesis clásica, dejando campo libre a la imaginación del artista, así como con vida, mediante la utilización de un lenguaje poético altamente plástico que, en sí mismo, constituye un rechazo al estancamiento percibido por el poeta en el ambiente cultural de la España de posguerra.
The expelled morisco Ricote in Don Quijote (1615) is on a quest to reunite his family and recover a cache of buried treasure, including a substantial volume of coins. This paper diverges from current critical trends focused on economic discourse in Cervantes by approaching Ricote’s coins not as economic signifiers but as material artifacts. Contrasting the numismatic messages materially embodied in Ricote’s coins with his own personal drama, a fundamental dissonance emerges, problematizing Cervantes’s representation of the moriscoexpulsion, and opening Ricote’s story to a broader interrogation of the relationship between numismatic propaganda and contemporary justifications of the mass expulsions of 1609–1614 (such as those penned by apologists like Aznar Cardona, Bleda, Corral y Rojas, Fonseca, and Guadalajara y Javier).
This article contends that bloodlines stand as one of the most fundamental yet overlooked aspects of Leopoldo Alas’s seminal work La Regenta. In fact, the narrative begins and ends with the tarnished lineage of Ana Ozores who, over the course of the narrative, wrestles with the conflicting status of her stained origin on the one hand, and her chaste, virtuous temperament on the other. Recovering the discourse of blood, I argue, proves crucial to understanding this conflict. In so doing, this article challenges the conventional periodization that equates blood with the early modern period and sexuality with the modern. Through a critical engagement with Michel Foucault’sHistory of Sexuality, this article posits blood as the starting point for what I call the “chastity bind,” whereby the ideological underpinnings of limpieza de sangre (purity of blood) thwarts the modern sexual economy that privileges chastity over origin.
The Formation of Brazilian Souls: Imagery of the Republic in Brazil by José Murilo de Carvalho (review) by Natalia Brizuela
The Aesthetics of the Ephemeral: Memory Theaters in Contemporary Barcelona by Jennifer Duprey (review) by Edgar Illas
Judíos y conversos en el Corpus Christi: la dramaturgia calderoniana by Juan Carlos Garrot Zambrana (review) by Felipe B. Pedraza Jiménez
Roots of Brazil by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda (review) by Dylon Robbins
Teatros nacionales republicanos: la Segunda República y el teatro clásico español by David Rodríguez-Solás (review) by Elena Cueto Asín
Capital Fictions: The Literature of Latin America’s Export Age by Ericka Beckman (review) by Alejandro Mejías-López
Baroque Sovereignty: Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora and the Creole Archive of Colonial Mexico by Anna More (review) by Erin Graff Zivin
Spring 2016 Vol. 84.2
The persistent problem of violence against women in Spain has often been obscured by the representation of female pain and suffering as a form of beauty. The film Te doy mis ojos provides an important critique of such historical, patriarchal representations of women in art and literature by portraying a unique female perspective of gendered violence in all of its brutality. This article studies Te doy mis ojos from three perspectives. First, it provides a historical context of violence against women through an examination of the Spanish legal system from medieval times to the present. Second, it analyzes the film as a response to the politics of the aesthetics of violence in early modern Spain. Finally, it compares the film with the unique female voice of seventeenth-century writer María de Zayas. These three perspectives demonstrate an idiosyncratic female dialectic of violence that is important for understanding the portrayal of domestic violence in Spain, its relation to the legal context, and how it might be that we now perceive historical misrepresentations of violence against women as something sensual and beautiful.
This article focuses on the related notions of friendship and communication as they are developed in a political framework in two works, the Brevyloquyo de amor e amiçiçia (ca. 1437) and De optima politia (1436), by the fifteenth-century Castilian scholar Alfonso de Madrigal, el Tostado. Through a reflection on the possibility of friendship and communication with the divine, Madrigal puts forward a model of civil friendship based on the composite and permeable natures of both human interiority and human social structures such as the city.
Fernando Fonseca Pacheco
This article repositions Mário de Andrade’s ethnographic journals of his two trips within a larger cultural context by shifting the focus from an established text to the process through which two media, the archive and the newspaper, shaped their content and differences. I argue that reading the first journal through Mário’s editing of the manuscript exposes a mocking and experimental approach to ethnographic practices. It also exposes his careful attention to the creation of archives and collections as a way to create cultural memory in Brazil. The journal of his second trip is aligned with the political and cultural agenda of the Diário Nacional and O Partido Democrático, in which ethnography is practiced in a less experimental way and aims to assert a collective voice.
This article uses geographer Neil Smith’s concept of the politics of scale to argue for a renewed reading of Rosario Castellanos’s first novel, Balún Canán (1957), within the context of regional narrative. That reading is accomplished by combining recent contextual investigations in history and sociology with crucial allusions to economic structures in the novel. In keeping with Smith’s formulations, Balún Canán is shown to be a work in which no simple resolution can be made between global, regional, and national contexts.
During the latter half of the nineteenth century, cuadros de costumbres of the Philippines became popular in Spain, not only among average readers, but also among literary taste-makers such as Emilia Pardo Bazán. The popularity of colonial costumbrismo in this period functioned as a means of judging the Philippines and the Filipinos in their capacity to participate in a modern nation and a modern market. Close readings of stories by José Montero y Vidal and Wenceslao E. Retana demonstrate that costumbrismo was a tool for both the cultivation of aesthetic judgment among metropolitan and criollo audiences and the suppression of the same among Filipino readers. The differing effects of costumbrista writing on metropolitan and colonial readers in turn exacerbated exploitative regimes of culture, including markets, and thus abetted the extension of imperial power into daily life in the Archipelago during the closing decades of the Spanish Empire.
Lorca in Tune with Falla: Literary and Musical Interludes by Nelson R. Orringer (review) Walter Aaron Clark
Sins of the Fathers: Moral Economies in Early Modern Spain by Hilaire Kallendorf (review) Leah Middlebrook
Autumn 2014 Vol. 82.4
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Emily C. Francomano
This article explores how the thirteenth-century verse Vida de María Egipciaca portrays the sins, conversion, and spectacular penance of Mary of Egypt in terms of her rejection of and eventual entrance into orthodox economies. As I argue, hagiographic legends about prostitutes have economic subtexts and the Vida offers paradoxical visions of prostitution both as a foil and as an analogue for the financial metaphors that undergird the very economy of salvation. In the Vida prostitution, as practiced by the repentant María, not only represents sexual depravity, but also a move from economic indifference and the unregulated distribution of sexual activities to a consciousness of just prices and exchange values. The poem thus offers a striking medieval articulation of Christian salvation economy, relating the salvation economy to notions of women’s value as objects of exchange. In so doing, the Vida also interlaces the context of thirteenth-century Mediterranean economic culture with its poetics.
In the framework of Hispanic Modernist reception, the volumen by the Andalucian Ramón Franquelo y Romero entitled Frases impropias, barbarismos, solecismos y extranjerismos de uso más frecuente en la prensa y en la conversación (1910) has not been studied in depth. The book was initially conceived as a guide for the correct use of the Spanish language, but the author tries to take advantage of it by attacking modernist literature, following Antonio de Valbuena or Friar Martín Blanco’s harsh voices, among others. Ramón Franquelo represents two focal points against the controversial literary movement: religious setting and linguistic purism. Franquelo’s case offers new keys with which we can continue delving into antimodernism.
Guinevere W. Allen
El estudio sobre “El Amigo de la Muerte” (1852), de Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, se ha desarrollado hasta la fecha alrededor de dos debates específicos: su conexión con la tradición oral europea y su discutida adscripciónalgénero fantástico. Dichas aproximaciones han dado frutos provechosos, pero limitados, ya que se han visto mediatizadas por expectativas tomadas de parámetros predeterminados ajenos al texto. En este artículo, tras una revisión somera de ambos debates, me enfoco en la función central del subtexto antigalicista y en las estrategias de reapropiación literaria localizables dentro del relato. Como propongo demostrar, los rasgos específicos que caracterizan “El Amigo de la Muerte”, y que se desvían tanto del modelo folclórico como de formulaciones estandarizadas de lo fantástico, proceden del deseo del autor de contrarrestar el influjo francés por medio de la crítica explícita y la readopción estratégica en coordenadas nacionales del pícaro Gil Blas de Alain-René Lesage.
In his last, posthumous novel, La ninfa inconstante, Guillermo Cabrera Infante presents a return to Havana before the Cuban Revolution. This article seeks to mobilize the strategies of autobiography, memory and autofiction to understand the author’s rewriting of his memoirs in a novelistic form. Memory is used as a tool to access and rewrite the past, seeking to bypass or question state ideologies, be they communist or capitalist. Using the theoretical model of Svetlana Boym’s work on nostalgia, I read the novel as a nostalgic return to a past that seeks to resignify the present history of Cuba before and during the Revolution; to create a lieux de mémoire that will testify for an alternative history of Cuba as well as serve as an example for other Cuban and non-Cuban exiles to (re)create their own spaces outside of official history without defying it openly.
Prescriptive literature praised enclosure as the natural state for women and warned against talkative and footloose females. This article studies the trajectory followed by two singular women, one is the case of the pseudo autobiography of Catalina de Erauso, the so-called lieutenant-nun, who fought as a soldier for Spain and traveled throughout Europe and America disguised as a man. The other is Isabella de Luna, a young Spanish woman that followed the Spanish army and became a famous courtesan in Rome. Her sexual appetite and her traveling made her particularly dangerous and she became a target of criticism for women’s transgressions. This study will demonstrate how women out of place (the traveling woman) were a source of anxiety for the hegemonic powers of the time. Literature as this popular saying attests “la mujer honrada en casa y con la pata quebrada” contributed to maintain this soon to be shaken order.
Spanish Reception of Russian Narratives, 1905–1939 by Lynn C. Purkey by Laurent Boetsch (review)
Cultural Capital, Language and National Identity in Imperial Spain by Lucia Binotti by Eli Cohen (review)
The Spanish American crónica modernista, Temporality, and Material Culture: Modernismo’s Unstoppable Presses by Andrew Reynolds by Adela Pineda Franco (review)
Spring 2014 Vol. 82.2
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The 2011 republication of Martín Gambarotta’s 1996 poetry collection, Punctum, offers the opportunity for new readers to approach this seminal and striking volume, one that was for some time unavailable. Furthermore, it offers the opportunity to reflect on the complex poetics of a collection that, despite its initial impression of a stark hermeticism or even banality, offers a range of literary, poetic, and political implications. Moreover, it is a collection that, alongside Sergio Raimondi’s Poesía civil, represents the surprising variety of so-called 1990s, or objetivista, poetry in Argentina, and whose unexpected literary complexity runs counter to easy periodizations of Argentine literature. There is, though, a mismatch between the effectiveness of Gambarotta’s poems and the apparent banality of much of the text. Despite reusing clichés and slogans from the contemporary media, Gambarotta’s collection creates striking thematic, sonic, and visual effects on the reader.
Vicente J. Benet
The Encuentros de Pamplona of 1972 was the most important exhibit of avant-garde and experimental art that had ever taken place during Franco’s dictatorship. Some of the world’s most prominent artists, including John Cage, went to Spain to participate in this event. This article offers a reflection on the use of avant-garde and experimental art from the 1950s to the early 1970s in Spain. In the beginning, abstract art was accepted by Franco’s regime as a way of exporting a "liberal" and "modern" image of the dictatorship in art exhibitions. Yet the ambivalent nature of abstract experimental art made it possible to take these works as a silent protest against the regime. However, in the early 70s, a younger generation would shift their approach to experimental art forms, yet not reject them altogether: distanced by an attitude of cynicism toward the ability of film to bring about political change, they would appropriate and extend the avant-garde through parody and pastiche, thus marking the "fin de fiesta" of experimental art in Spain.
Ana Belén Martín Sevillano
This paper examines the representation of gender violence in four contemporary Cuban novels: Máscaras by Leonardo Padura, Río Quibú by Ronaldo Menéndez, 100 botellas en una pared by Ena Lucía Portela, and Todos se van by Wendy Guerra. The analysis focuses on how domestic violence is conceived in these texts as a manifestation of the systemic violence that has shaped Cuban society. Furthermore, the paper considers the differences between the novels written by men and those written by women, suggesting that the gendered experience of the world has an impact on the experience of violence and in its textual representation.
Este artículo analiza la representación de la violencia de género en cuatro novelas cubanas contemporáneas: Máscaras (1997) de Leonardo Padura, Río Quibú (2008) de Ronaldo Menéndez, Cien botellas en una pared (2002) de Ena Lucía Portela y Todos se van (2006) de Wendy Guerra. El ensayo considera, en primer lugar, que la violencia doméstica es concebida en estas obras como una manifestación más de la violencia sistémica sobre la que se ha articulado la sociedad cubana. Luego, al examinar las diferencias existentes entre las novelas escritas por hombres y aquellas escritas por mujeres, el artículo sugiere que la experiencia de género condiciona la representación textual de la violencia.
This article considers the role of sound in the production of space and subjectivity, as seen in Cuban director Fernando Pérez’s 2003 film, Suite Habana. It argues that sound modifies the film’s ideological and visual representations of the city by creating an aural imaginary that represents an affective and corporeally felt notion of community. In this way, sound not only links unrelated characters to one another on the screen, it also expands the enclosed, visual experience of the city into a soundscape that connects the space on the screen to the space of the theater or the home of the audio-viewer. Sound thus unites otherwise disparate subjects into a sonic community that crosses spatial boundaries. The article grounds its arguments in analyses of voice, music, and the construction of both acousmatic and hyperreal sound in the film.
This article argues that Rufino Blanco Fombona’s short stories, in particular Cuentos americanos, are a fundamental example of his ambiguities vis-à-vis Spanish American modernismo. Although his attacks on Rubén Darío were precisely articulated in his memoirs and essays, Blanco Fombona’s fictions are heavily indebted to his modernista roots, and especially to his first contacts with nationalistic motifs in the work of several Venezuelan modernistas. The ultimate aim of this discussion is to challenge the rigidity with which traditional historiography differentiates modernismo and criollismo. A more nuanced approach to this moment in literary history allows us to better understand how aesthetic ideologies are manipulated by authors and critics to distribute and accumulate symbolic power in the field of cultural production.
Este artículo postula que los relatos de Rufino Blanco Fombona, sobre todo sus Cuentos americanos, son un ejemplo fundamental de las ambigüedades del autor ante el modernismo. Aunque sus ataques contra Rubén Darío se articularon con claridad en sus memorias y ensayos, las narraciones de Blanco Fombona tienen una deuda profunda con sus orígenes modernistas y, en particular, con sus primeros contactos con motivos nacionalistas en la obra de varios modernistas venezolanos. El objetivo de esta discusión es cuestionar la rigidez con que la historiografía literaria tradicional distingue modernismo y criollismo. Un acercamiento más matizado a este momento de la historia literaria permite comprender mejor cómo autores y críticos manipulan las ideas estéticas para distribuir y acumular poder simbólico en el seno del campo de producción cultural.