Previous Issue Article Abstracts
Volume 89, Number 1, Winter 2021
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This article argues for a shift toward aurality and away from the emphasis on orality that has long been a keynote in criticism about the work of Juan Rulfo. To attend to the ears that listen rather than solely the voice that speaks, I not only consider the Jaliscan writer's entire oeuvre but also turn to a seldom-studied yet readily available archive: Rulfo's recordings of a few stories from El llano en llamas and two fragments from Pedro Páramo. Addressing these audio versions amplifies the importance of the aural throughout Rulfo's writings and expands on the readings of other critics who examine some of the sounds that echo across his works but who rarely acknowledge the constitutive role of the listener. And just as Rulfo's own experiences with tape reveal these listening techniques, his representations of other sound reproduction technologies portray the effects of changing aural perceptions and practices
Este artículo aborda el auge de la cultura visual en la literatura española y, en particular, el papel que desempeña el archivo visual sobre la Transición en las tramas literarias contemporáneas. En primer lugar, se define el nuevo régimen visual contemporáneo desde los presupuestos de la teoría estética y la crítica de las ideologías para explicar cómo la digitalización ha extendido el valor de lo serial, y no de lo único e irrepetible. En este contexto, llamado posfotográfico, el valor documental de lo fotográfico se ha visto alterado y ya no posee la función verificadora que tuvo cuando se almacenaba física y materialmente en los archivos históricos. Los almacenes de la memoria colectiva se conforman hoy según el paradigma de la inmaterialidad que dictan las nuevas tecnologías para la captación de imágenes. El artículo explica cómo determina el análisis político y cultural de la Transición la manera en que el escritor incluye este archivo visual de la memoria colectiva en su obra. Esta explicación se realiza en particular mediante el comentario crítico de las obras de Javier Cercas y Marta Sanz.
En este trabajo sugiero que el análisis de algunos episodios de El perro del hortelano a través de su verosímil contexto mediterráneo puede ayudar a matizar su adscripción al género de las comedias palatinas. Con ello quiero aportar claves para entender cómo Lope, en un período de madurez creativa, no solo reorienta y actualiza el material literario de sus fuentes, sino que también muestra una vez más que la mezcla e hibridación de géneros está en la base de la Comedia Nueva. A lo largo del artículo complemento diversas aportaciones críticas sobre la obra con los así llamados Estudios Mediterráneos, analizo múltiples rasgos dramáticos de la pieza vinculados a este mar, e incido especialmente en su ingeniosa conclusión; finalmente propongo una explicación respecto de por qué Lope elige para resolver la trama que el gracioso encarne precisamente a un mercader intermediario greco-armenio, una figura solo entendible a principios del siglo XVII.
José Vasconcelos's Plant Theory: The Life of Plants, Botanical Ethics, and the Cosmic Race
This article explores the representations of plant life and botanical ethics in José Vasconcelos's philosophical work. Drawing from some ideas of so-called critical plant studies, I investigate the ontological, political, and ecological implications of Vasconcelos's plant theory. I contend that it is a set of suggestions that ultimately put pressure on the stability of his own philosophical and political thought. The article focuses on two aspects of vegetal life that Vasconcelos highlights and theorizes: consciousness and collectivity. While the idea of plant consciousness as a tight interweaving of organic and inorganic elements tends to destabilize the anthropomorphic notion of human consciousness, plant collectivity stages a contingent and proliferating multiplicity that resists its domestication into a stable totality. In this way, Vasconcelos's encounter with plants suddenly uncovers the possibility of an ecological and anarchic thought. In the last section, I examine how these philosophical ideas about plants shed new light and cast an innovative image of La raza cósmica.
In 2009, Spanish public broadcaster RTVE released 50 años de, a series of documentaries on Spanish cultural icons, trends, and audiovisual memories of the last fifty years. Within that framework, its episodes seem to work towards the felicitous continuation of the Renanian vote for the Spanish nation. The series, which draws its raw materials from the vast archive of RTVE, attempts to achieve that purpose by persistently putting to work different structural and formal devices in the filmic treatment of the selected footage. There is nothing intrinsically extraordinary in this, except for the cultural perplexity that it produced in one of the most contentious peripheries of that Spanish nation, Catalonia, and on the very cusp of divisive times. Through my analysis, I show some peculiarities of nation formation in postdictatorial Spain. I also posit that this peculiar peripheral construction of the nation is not that extraordinary throughout the history of Spain.
Cuban Literature in the Age of Black Insurrection: Manzano, Plácido, and Afro-Latino Religion by Mathew Pettway (review)
R. J. Boutelle
This Ghostly Poetry: History and Memory of Exiled Spanish Republican Poets by Daniel Aguirre-Oteiza (review)
Juan F. Egea
Japanese Brazilian Saudades: Diasporic Identities and Cultural Production by Ignacio López-Calvo (review)
Hercules and the King of Spain: Icons of Masculinity and Nation in Calderón's Spain by Dian Fox (review)
Lucas A. Marchante-Aragón
Volume 88, Number 4, Autumn 2020
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Antonio Machado en diálogo con Emmanuel Lévinas: el compromiso con la objetividad y la otredad
This article offers a comparative reading of Antonio Machado and Emmanuel Lévinas. This comparative reading highlights the affinities between Machado’s and Lévinas’s thinking, particularly in terms of the key concepts of objectivity and otherness. Undoubtedly, in placing Machado in dialogue with Lévinas—a critical exchange that has not been tackled in any systematic manner to date—will help us discern in what respect Machado pioneered a philosophy of otherness.
This article explores the relationship between archive and death through an analysis of the collected papers of the Uruguayan poet Delmira Agustini. It posits that her collection, housed in the National Library of Uruguay, intensifies the excess of life by confusing organic and synthetic bodies, with a special emphasis on the synthetic bodies of dolls. The article insists that novel stagings of gender, as well as the choreographies and materialities of the archive, bestow the authorial body with a new future, or an afterlife. This afterlife requires the compulsive summoning and citation of the author’s cadaver and remains. The Uruguayan repository demonstrates how a writer’s archive becomes a sort of doll house, in which the miniature figure of the author can activate its latent potential to transform, emancipate, or reproduce. Finally, it reveals the power of the archive to exert a material influence on the author’s life and strict gender of the body.
Tirso de Molina’s philandering Don Juan finds his downfall in the Stone Guest. This reanimated tomb effigy of Don Gonzalo pulls Don Juan to hell in the final act of El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra. Don Juan’s life of transgressions has upset both societal and divine order, so his punishment must be enacted in both spheres. In this paper, I consider the Stone Guest, who returns to the world of the living to mete out Don Juan’s punishment, to be a ghostly figure. As an undead apparition, the Stone Guest occupies a space between life and death, which positions him as the only character capable of enacting complete justice. I further examine the ways in which Don Gonzalo’s execution of justice, both human and divine, contributes to the 16th century’s de auxiliis debates regarding the influence of free will and divine control in man’s life.
Emilia Pardo Bazán created in Amparo, the main character in La Tribuna, one of the first republican leaders represented in nineteenth-century Spanish literature. In the character three different roles converge in conflict with one another: gender, social and political roles. This conflict can be better understood when analyzing the novel as the story of the formation and rise of a revolutionary leader from the representation of emotions and their role in the novel. The paper studies the character as “being emotional,” based on the theoretical framework offered by Sarah Ahmed’s The Cultural Politics of Emotions. For this purpose, each one of the facets of Amparo will be taken into account: as a woman, as a worker, as a speaker, and as a mother. Its application will consider three levels of analysis: emotions and their actions in the words of the characters and in the plot; the narrative voice generating emotions; and, ultimately, the author’s voice.
Devotional Reading and the Visual Dynamics of La passion del eterno principe (Burgos, 1493?)
Isidro J. Rivera
This essay explores the technologies of reading and visualization in La passion del eterno principe (Burgos, 1493?). Early printed texts generated a material relationship between the text and image that allowed the readers to process words and images without interference and to construct meaning from their interplay. The distinctiveness of this incunable resides in its deployment of dynamic visual and verbal codes that offered laypeople a framework for empathetic meditation focused on Christ’s suffering and its salvific consequences within the Christian life.
This paper analyzes the intense engagement of Estridentismo—Mexico’s most important avant-garde literary movement of the 1920s—with the contemporary culture of advertising. By focusing specifically on Manuel Maples Arce’s manifesto Actual Nº 1 and Germán List Arzubide’s El movimiento estridentista, this paper shows the ambiguous attitude of Estridentism otowards advertising. On the one hand, Estridentista artists showed a true fascination with advertising as a new artistic paradigm that, like the avant-garde project, broke with traditional artistic precepts. Despite their aesthetic attraction to advertising, both Maples Arce and List Arzubide used parody to mimic the discourse of marketing to criticize the culture of mass consumption that characterized contemporary capitalism. Through their parodic appropriation of advertising, both authors claim humor as an effective tool of political and social critique that challenges the economic values and literary expectations of their audiences.
Poesía, ideología e historia: siglos XX y XXI by Juan José Lanz (review)
El actor borbónico (1700–1831) by Joaquín Álvarez Barrientos (review)
Volume 88, Number 3, Summer 2020
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This article examines how the Gothic elements of Galdós's novel La sombra (1871) facilitate the exploration of a late nineteenth-century crisis of masculinity as embodied in the protagonist, Anselmo. It proposes that La sombra depicts the impossibility of the bourgeois male ideal by casting this figure in a spectral form while simultaneously characterizing Anselmo, who fails to meet hegemonic masculine standards, as a monster. In this reading, the novel acknowledges the negative effects of unrealistic gender expectations by portraying the protagonist's progressive monstrosity as a consequence of his growing awareness of the shortcomings in his gender performance. The dual processes of spectralization and demonization at work in the text suggest that, beyond censuring an individual male's bad behavior, Galdós's novel problematizes the social pressures surrounding bourgeois masculinity that can potentially drive men to violence.
Whereas modern critics have considered Juan de la Cueva's Tragedia de los siete infantes de Lara (1579) unappealing compared to Lope's 1612 version of the story and discussed the Sevillian playwright's misguided use of classical tragic genre conventions, the present essay proposes a framework for understanding the play that is neither Lopean nor classicist. Arguing that the heart of Infantes is a pervading sense of metaphysical absence, it suggests that the play can be meaningfully construed as an early example of the "mourning play," or that mixture of history play and tragedy which the German philosopher-critic Walter Benjamin presented as the central late-Renaissance aesthetic form of historical contemplation in his Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels (1925; The Origin of German Tragic Drama). Cueva's history of the House of Lara can be construed, that is, as a play which is concerned not so much with this or that historical person or event as with—unideal, broken, amputated—history itself.
This essay analyzes Spanish filmmaker Pilar Monsell's 2014 documentary África 815, an account of her father's complex history, including professional and personal failures. It shows how the film creates proximity within distance, constructing a nuanced account of Manuel Monsell's life, which, without explicitly condemning its thorniest elements (and in particular his Orientalist fetishizing of younger Maghrebi men), nonetheless refuses to gloss over them. Rather, the filmmaker lays bare her father's vulnerabilities and faults so the spectator may come to his or her own conclusions about Manuel's actions and experiences. This process is achieved through several key filmic tactics, explored here: hybridity, tactility, silence, slowness, and voice. Analyzing these strategies, the essay traces how the filmmaker's gaze on the narrative of her father's past uncovers meaning by engaging in an embodied and attentive reading of a life history that resists both binary identities and easy narrative legibility.
A vida é sonho: Mundos imaginados e "comunidade latina" em O hipnotizador – El hipnotizador
Ada Cristina Machado da Silveira
The article presents an analysis of the TV series The Hypnotist, a drama produced and aired by HBO Latin American Group's cable TV channel in its sixth original production and first bilingual series. The notion of semiotic diacritics of cultural (dis)continuities, such as heteroglossia, chronotopes, and spatiotemporal hybridity, is key to my examination of the series. I apply procedures of inversion, discontinuity, specificity, and discursive exteriority throughout the text. My analysis proposes the concept of mediascape as appropriate to the audiovisual product, given the purpose of exploring the cross-border condition of the "Latin community," converting aspects of mobility and fluidity into media capital that the various production teams can leverage. From the perspective of the audience, the mediascape that is engendered leads to migratory, mobile, and resettled communities, setting up implications and encouraging agendas to change the future and general expectations.
The resurgence of the medieval bestiary in contemporary Hispanic literature has resulted in increasingly creative interpretations of the genre. Among these interpretations is 200 años de monstruos y maravillas argentinas (2015) compiled by Gabo Ferro, illustrated by Christian Montenegro, and designed by Laura Varsky. This article explores the ontological debate that ensues from 200 años's choice to place humans in literary spaces traditionally reserved for animals. 200 años compiles documentation denoting Argentine history's dark underbelly, brandishing the word bestia to blur the line between "appropriate" and "marginalized" historical subjects. In this work, images check historical documentation through sardonic interpretation, creating a space between text and image in which the reader/viewer may reconsider the veracity and underpinnings of official Argentine historical narratives and hegemony.
Orientaciones transpacíficas: la modernidad mexicana y el espectro de Asia by Laura J. Torres-Rodríguez (review)
Rafael Acosta Morales
Mourning El Dorado: Literature and Extractivism in the Contemporary American Tropics by Charlotte Rogers (review)
Carmen Martín Gaite: el juego de la vida y la literatura by José Jurado Morales (review)
María Luisa Guardiola Tey
Volume 88, Number 2, Spring 2020
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La Galatea (1585) by Miguel de Cervantes, as a libro de pastores that alternates the tale of fictional shepherds with the lyric verse they sincerely utter, is a book about lyric. As such, it explores a problem in lyric theory that is also touched upon in the novella "El curioso impertinente": the tension between lyric as fiction, or the mimesis of affect, and lyric as sincere outpouring, or the earnest communication of affect. In a subplot of La Galatea, the courtier Silerio disguises himself as a truhán or poet-for-hire as an allegory of an emerging kind of poet in the late sixteenth century, and in that capacity ends up praising the woman he secretly loves. This article reads La Galatea in light of key texts in lyric theory from Minturno and Torelli in the sixteenth century, to Hamburger and Smith in the twentieth, to Luján Atienza and Culler in the twenty-first.
Historia antigua de México (1780-1781) by Francisco Javier Clavigero represents a unique effort to systematize the pre-Columbian history of the Mexica, and to showcase their cultural achievements. This article argues that Clavigero intertwined in his historical narrative a concern about the education of natives in the viceroyalty of New Spain. In line with the pedagogical commitment of the Jesuits and the enlightened ideas of his time, he conceived education as the only means that would better allow Mexican natives to negotiate their positions within the structures of the Spanish colonial regime. Clavigero turned to pre-Columbian models to show that the Mexica had achieved the political and social welfare of their people through a solid system of domestic and public instruction. For the author, one could find examples worthy of imitation in the ancient history of Mexico.
Fernando Pessoa placed the brief and unfinished work of his master heteronym, Alberto Caeiro, at the center of his literary, philosophical and poetological oeuvre. Therefore, the edition and hermeneutics of Caeiro's texts are of fundamental importance to any interpretation of Pessoa's literary work as a whole. Thus, the five commented, and more or less critical editions that have been published during the last 25 years, require a critical evaluation. This study will focus primarily on the critical edition of Ivo Castro that was published in 2015, but it will also draw comparisons with the remaining four. It will be argued that all editions present incoherences with regard to their methodologies, and that they do not correspond in a satisfying manner to the challenges involved in the heteronymical process of Pessoa's creative practice. Consequently, a different method of reading and editing beyond the linear and orthotypographical genetic-critical traditions will be proposed. It will be argued that the unfinished character of Caeiro's text represents a paradigm of non-linear poetic language and poetics, which can be made extensible to the literary context of all heteronyms.
El vientre de la bestia: Crueldad, tiranía y tormento en la emblemática de los hermanos Covarrubias
José Manuel Pereiro Otero
Besides their emblematic texture, Emblemas morales (1589, 1591 and 1604), and Emblemata moralia (1601), by Juan de Horozco Covarrubias (c. 1545–1610), as well as Emblemas morales (1610), by Sebastián de Covarrubias Orozco (1539–1613), share a similar concern. Namely, certain emblems reveal an associative chain that links together the concepts of cruelty, tyranny and torture, a sequence that stresses the juxtaposition of the scope of the political to that of the juridical in any cruel act. In an implicit dialogue with political treatises like De rege et regis institutione (1599) by Juan de Mariana (1536–1624), and supported by both Greco-Latin and contemporary referents, these collections identify a particular problematic that characterizes the nexus between the 16th and 17th centuries, while participating in a transhistorical discourse that differentiates human beings from animals.
La Sagrada Familia de Max Aub: Campo cerrado, novela arquitectónica
Francisco León Rivero
Campo cerrado has been traditionally considered a realist and ethically engaged novel. This consideration may seem appropriate in light of the term galería ('gallery') with which it is characterized in the prologue and in the final pages. The term, nevertheless, allows us to open our reading of the text to a new interpretation that focuses on the architectural dimension of the work. In this essay, I first contextualize the architectural component within the urban experience (the city of Barcelona), and then approach a specific building whose presence turns out to be outstanding from an urbanistic and textual perspective: the basilica of the Sagrada Familia. Given its location in the urban landscape and the experience it evokes in the observer and main character (Rafael), the analysis of the building leads to conclusions that are applicable to the novel as a whole and contradict its initial characterization as a "gallery." Indeed, as I will demonstrate, Campo cerrado has a spatial structure buttressed by a discursive framework that is essential to a full understanding of the novel's message.
Beyond Human: Vital Materialisms in the Andean Avant-Gardes by Tara Daly (review)
Volume 88, Number 1, Winter 2020
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THIS ISSUE OF HISPANIC REVIEW IS ADMIRINGLY AND AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED TO
ROMÁN DE LA CAMPA
ON THE OCCASION OF HIS RETIREMENT FROM TEACHING, 2020
A View “From the Other Side”: Román de la Campa
Tributes to Román de la Campa
David Barreto, Isabel Díaz Alanís, Julio Sebastián Figueroa, Carolyn Fornoff, Darío Goldgel Carballo, Ignasi Gozalo-Salellas, Linda Grabner Travis, Dana Khromov, Óscar E. Montoya, Malcolm K. Read, Lucía Reyes De Deu, Nancy Roane, Giselle Román-Medina, Ignacio M. Sánchez prado, Daniella Sánchez Russo, Víctor Sierra Matute
Afecto, memoria y lugar: En las orillas del Sar, Rosalía Castro, Lestrobe
Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza
En este artículo trataremos de mostrar la relevancia del enmarcamiento espacial y de su mediación por una comunidad emocional concreta para el análisis de En las orillas del Sar,de Rosalía Castro. Destacaremos la importancia en este sentido de un lugar particular, las Torres de Lestrobe, como punto clave en la focalización de la memoria y del afecto que articula la obra. Las implicaciones con respecto a determinados posicionamientos ideológicos y afectivos de la autora tienen asimismo, según veremos, una traslación en términos de campo literario.
Camilo Castelo Branco, autor da literatura de cordel
A narrativa Maria! Não Me Mates, Que Sou Tua Mãe!, publicada pelo escritor português Camilo Castelo Branco, sob anonimato, em 1848, tem seduzido até hoje ouvintes e leitores com formações e gostos muito diferentes entre si. Este texto, uma das primeiras obras em prosa do autor da célebre novela romântica Amor de Perdição (1862), surgiu em folheto de cordel. O seu grande sucesso pode avaliar-se pelas várias edições que teve logo entre 1848 e 1852. Neste artigo, procuro compreender esta obra no contexto da produção literária de Camilo e da cultura portuguesa e europeia de meados do século XIX.
El 20 de noviembre como lugar de memoria: construcciones y resignificaciones en el relato audiovisual
José Carlos Rueda Laffond, Carlota Coronado Ruiz
Pocas fechas de la reciente historia española presentan una carga de sentido tan poderosa como el 20 de noviembre. Efeméride del fallecimiento de Francisco Franco en 1975, pero también del fusilamiento de José Antonio Primo de Rivera y de la muerte de Buenaventura Durruti en 1936, ha compuesto durante décadas un potente momento de memoria. El artículo aborda, desde una perspectiva panorámica, la presencia del aniversario en el relato audiovisual, principalmente documental. El rol del 20 de noviembre como cita de memoria luctuosa, o su ligazón con la sacralización y desacralización, compondrán los ejes de interpretación, considerando que tales relatos se han implicado en procesos de construcción y reciclaje. Desde ahí se atenderá a las (re)significaciones simbólicas asociadas con las políticas de memoria donde se han situado esas producciones desde la Guerra Civil a la actualidad.
Entre alambradas y exilios: sangrías de las Españas y terapias de Vichy by José María Naharro-Calderón
Reviewied by Francie Cate-Arries
Hombres en movimiento: masculinidades españolas en los exilios y migraciones, 1939–1999 by Iker González-Allende
Reviewied by Joseba Gabilondo
Volume 87, Number 4, Autumn 2019
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Este artículo analiza la relación existente entre el componente bíblico-profético del Libro de Fernán Gonçález acerca de la cautividad babilónica y las profecías apocalípticas provenientes del libro de Daniel. Este vínculo alcanza su apogeo en la oración de los castellanos que, a su vez, concentra un contenido apocalíptico. El poeta, asimismo, va preparando el significado de la plegaria desde el principio de la obra mediante el planteamiento de una dinámica tipológica, que es uno de los ejes del poema. Para lograr este objetivo, se comparan las alusiones proféticas que el autor castellano hace en el poema con aquellas presentes en el Antiguo Testamento y en sus interpretaciones medievales.
The world that Don Quijote attempts to navigate in the Ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha is one in which vows are flawed, unsustainable, or completely absent, and where the dastardly effects of broken vows become both the cause and the product of violence. Chapter 4, with its incisive portrayal of the protagonist's systematic misunderstanding of promises and antipathy towards ocular proof, offers an early example of the Quijote's continual representation of the fallibility of vows and Don Quijote's attempts to overcome or overlook them. In particular, the silk merchant episode in the second half of the chapter engages questions exploring the foundation of faith. This episode dramatizes Don Quijote's problematic assumption that his chivalric code is one that all others must obey, while charting the etiology of violence associated with demanding visual evidence and exacting pledges of faith in the Quijote.
This essay approaches Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz's "Romance 37" from the perspective of indigenous studies, arguing that the nun portrays American birth as a discursive synecdoche to associate herself and, by extension, the New Spanish Creole class, with the riches mined in America. She equates mining, birth and material refinement with evangelization, implying that the Creoles are as fit to govern as the peninsulares because both groups are of quality stock and participate in evangelization processes. However, this rhetoric of materiality and refinement overlooks the bioethnic segregation of New Spain, meaning that the underlying argument for Creole administration may anachronistically read as a liberatory one inclusive of Amerindian peoples. By presenting successful evangelizers as the model for "indigenous" Catholic conduct, Sor Juana limits the semiotic scope of her synecdochical "América abundante" to tenants of Christian morality, explicitly excluding from this metaphysical territory those Spaniards who do not spread the word of God and implicitly excluding those who have yet to be evangelized, i.e., bio-ethnically indigenous peoples.
El presente artículo estudia la relación hombre–naturaleza en dos documentales cubanos de la década del 60. Se contrastan Ciclón (1963), de Santiago Álvarez, y Ociel del Toa (1965), de Nicolás Guillén Landrián, para revelar dos concepciones emergentes en la Cuba revolucionaria. Pretendo demostrar que mientras Ciclón legitima una lógica de dominación de la naturaleza en sintonía con la proyección moderna, Ociel del Toa expone una síntesis entre lo humano y lo no-humano que desafía la visión dominante en el Estado cubano. Para corroborar esta tesis, me apoyo en las ideas de Boaventura de Sousa y Walter Mignolo sobre las epistemologías del Sur y el sistema mundial moderno/colonial, respectivamente. Además, retomo el concepto de "superhombre" delineado por Bolívar Echeverría.
Cultures of the Fragment: Uses of the Iberian Manuscript, 1100–1600 by Heather Bamford (review)